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Table 1 Soil average temperature, accumulated temperature, average temperature difference, and accumulated temperature difference in various treatment groups: 1 and 10 days before the first irrigation (T1, T10, respectively) and 1 day before the second irrigation (E1) after seedling emergence, with one control group of film mulching present across growth stages (CK) for three soil depth layers (10, 20, and 30 cm) during 2015–2016

From: Photosynthetic characteristics of cotton are enhanced by altering the timing of mulch film removal

Item Year Soil layer depth
/cm
CK T1 E1 T10 Air Temperature
/°C
Average temperature
/°C
2015 10 23.56 23.08 22.27 23.48 23.54
  20 23.68 22.87 22.49 23.06  
  30 22.34 22.69 22.26 22.54  
2016 10 22.99 21.95 21.32 23.31 24.03
  20 23.00 21.72 21.24 22.93  
  30 22.70 21.60 21.09 22.55  
Accumulated temperature
/°C
2015 10 2 572.90 2 562.80 2 535.62 2 563.53 2 571.68
  20 2 587.03 2 529.05 2 536.32 2 517.27  
  30 2 439.18 2 491.04 2 472.97 2 459.96  
2016 10 2 587.76 2 570.10 2 547.73 2 625.77 2 703.08
  20 2 588.33 2 536.72 2 532.49 2 582.41  
  30 2 554.44 2 509.85 2 501.04 2 541.30  
Average temperature
difference
/°C
2015 10 9.79 6.46 6.18 8.38 13.34
  20 5.58 4.59 4.22 5.28  
  30 2.45 2.30 2.22 2.45  
2016 10 3.76 2.83 2.94 5.78 13.33
  20 2.85 1.56 1.74 2.33  
  30 1.28 0.84 0.81 0.85  
Accumulated temperature
difference
/°C
2015 10 1 068.56 749.50 824.28 912.97 1 452.60
  20 609.13 524.83 538.85 571.94  
  30 265.95 265.55 271.44 265.98  
2016 10 419.60 378.80 430.62 655.84 1 514.70
  20 319.50 217.42 264.24 258.89  
  30 144.81 114.12 124.48 96.89