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Table 1 Impact of various metal/metal oxide nanoparticles on major cultivation crops

From: Impact of metal oxide nanoparticles on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): a physiological perspective

Metal/Metal oxide nanoparticles Concentrations Plant/Crops Exposure Methodology Physiological Impacts on plants Reference
Au NPs 0–10 mg. L− 1 Mustard greens (Brassica juncea) Field Improved seedling growth with increased productivity in terms of seed yield Arora et al. 2012
0–100 mg. L− 1 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) Growth chamber Decrease in root length with increased dose of NPs Taylor et al. 2014
Ag NPs 0–5 000 mg. L− 1 Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.),
Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
Growth chamber Decrease in seed germination and shoot length El-Temsah and Joner 2012
1–10 mg. L− 1 Lettuce (Lactuca sativa),
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Growth chamber Significant increase in root length for barely and reduction in case of lettuce, Gruyer et al. 2013
20–100 mg. L− 1 Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Field Protein content increased up to 60 g·kg− 1 concentration of Ag NPs. Further increase show toxic effects Salama 2012
Corn (Zea mays L.)
0–100 mg. L− 1 Mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus) Growth chamber Reduction in seedling growth, less toxicity in soil medium Lee et al. 2012
0–40 mg. L−1 Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
0–1 mg. L−1 Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Growth chamber Significant decrease in root growth, plant biomass, total chlorophyll and carotenoids content and photosynthetic pigments in rice seedlings Nair and Chung 2014
Al2O3 2000 mg. L−1 Corn (Zea mays) Growth chamber Inhibition in root elongation Lin and Xing 2007
0.02–20 g·L−1 Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Growth chamber Inhibition in root elongation Yang and Watts 2005
Soybean (Glycine max)
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)
Carrot (Daucus carota)
400–4 000 g·L−1 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) Growth chamber Significant Increase in root elongation Lee et al. 2010
50 mg/ml Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Growth chamber Reduction in root elongation, lignin deposition, cellular deformation, increase in peroxidase activity and decrease in total protein content Yanık and Vardar 2015
CeO2 0.1–10 mg. L−1 Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Green house Increased plant growth and production with accumulation of Ce in tomato fruit Wang et al. 2012a
500–2000 mg. L−1 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) Glasshouse Reduction in plant growth and chlorophyll content at higher concentration Ma et al. 2013
0–500 mg·kg−1 Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Field Significant increase plant height, biomass, and grain yield Du et al. 2015
0–400 mg·kg−1 Greenhouse Toxic to wheat seedlings and increase in grain protein content Rico et al. 2014
CeO2& ZnO 0–800 mg·kg−1 Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Greenhouse Bioaccumulation of Ce and Zn Zhao et al. 2013
Cr2O3 0–100 mg·L−1 Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Growth chamber Inhibition of seed germination, biomass, shoot and root length Vajpayee et al. 2011
CuO 10–100 mg. L−1 Maize (Zea mays L.) Growth chamber No effect on seed germination Wang et al. 2012b
0–1 000 mg. L−1 Rice (Oriza sativa var. Jyoti) Growth chamber Increased level of oxidative and osmotic stress, decrease in germination rate, root and shoot length, and biomass Da Costa and Sharma 2016
Fe3O4& ZnO 0 – 20 mg.L−1 Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Field Increase in nutrients, biomass and decreased Cd toxicity Rizwan et al. 2019
Fe3O4 0–100 μL·L−1 Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Growth chamber Reduction in chlorophyll content Ursache-Oprisan et al. 2011
2000 mg. L−1 Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Growth chamber Growth inhibition & reduce oxidative stress induced by heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd) Konate et al. 2017
SiO2 0–100 mg. L−1 Rice (Oriza sativa L.) Growth chamber Positive effect on seed germination and seedlings growth Adhikari et al. 2013
TiO2 0–400 mg. L−1 Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.)
Onion (Allium cepa L.)
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)
Green House Improved seed germination at 100 and 200 mg. L−1 concentration Haghighi and da Silva, 2014
100 mg. L−1 Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Growth chamber No effect on seed germination and total biomass Larue et al. 2012
TiO2& ZnO 100–500 mg·kg−1 Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Field Reduced plant Growth Du et al. 2011
0–1 000 mg. L−1 Rice (Oriza sativa L.) Growth chamber Root elongation inhibition with decreased number of roots Boonyanitipong et al. 2011
ZnO 0–500 mg·kg−1 Soybean (Glycine max L.) Green House Reduced growth of plant Yoon et al. 2014
400–2000 mg. L−1 Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Growth chamber 1g. L−1 NPs concentration improved seedling germination but showed negative effect at 2 g. L− 1 Prasad et al. 2012
0–1 600 mg. L− 1 Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
Growth chamber Germination rate reduced in Tomato and Alfalfa but increased in Cucumber de la Rosa et al. 2013
0–500 mg·kg− 1 Green peas (Pisum sativum L.) Field Increased root elongation Mukherjee et al. 2014
0–16 mg. L− 1 Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) Net house Increased growth, enhanced photosynthetic efficiency at 8 mg. L− 1 treatment Faizan et al. 2018