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Table 2 Impact of various metal/metal oxide nanoparticles on cotton plants

From: Impact of metal oxide nanoparticles on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): a physiological perspective

Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Source/ Synthetic Method Cotton Variety
Studied
Exposure Methodology Impact on Cotton Plant Reference
Cerium Oxide (CeO2NPs)
Size (nm): 10 ± 3.2
Conc. (mg. L− 1): 0, 100, 500, 2 000
Merchant Bt 29317
& Jihe 321
Growth chamber Decreased plant height, shoot and root biomass with various dose treatments;
Decreased nutrient element content (Na, Ca, Zn, Mg, and Fe) in roots.
Li et al. 2014; Nhan et al. 2015
Silicon Dioxide (SiO2 NPs)
Size (nm): <  30
Conc. (mg. L− 1): 0, 10, 100, 500, 2 000
Merchant Bt-29312
& Jihe 321
Growth chamber Decreased plant height, shoot and root biomass;
Altered Na content in roots and Mg, Cu contents in shoots;
Increased SOD activity, IAA concentration.
Nhan et al. 2014
Copper Oxide (CuO NPs)
Size (nm): <  30
Conc. (mg. L− 1): 0, 10, 200, 1 000
Merchant Ipt-cotton Growth chamber Negatively effect on plant height, number of root hairs, root length, and shoot biomass with higher dose;
Inhibition of the synthesis of phytohormones (IAA, ABA, GA, and t- ZR);
Increased iPA concentration, that might have resulted in delayed senescence.
Nhan et al. 2016c
Bt 29317 & Jihe 321 Growth chamber Inhibited the growth in both transgenic and conventional cottons;
Reduced uptake of nutrients (Mo, B, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn);
Lower dose treatment improved the Bt toxin expression in Bt-transgenic cotton.
Nhan et al. 2016b
Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3 NPs)
Size (nm): <  50
Conc.(mg. L−1): 0, 100, 1 000
Merchant Bt 29317 & Jihe 321 Growth chamber Inhibited plant height of Bt-transgenic cotton;
Promoted abundance of root hairs, and biomass of conventional cotton;
Increased Fe, Na and K nutrients content and phytohormones in the roots of Bt-transgenic cotton at low Fe2O3 NP exposure;
Decreased Zn contents in roots of Bt-transgenic cotton;
Increased Bt-toxin level in roots and leaves of Bt-transgenic cotton.
Nhan et al. 2016a
Zinc Oxide (ZnO NPs)
Size (nm): 2 to 54
Conc. (mg. L−1): 25, 50, 75, 100, 200
Using algal extract (from Halimeda tuna) as reducing agent Non-transgenic Growth chamber Promoted the growth, photosynthetic pigment levels, biomass, and protein contents;
Declined MDA production;
Improved the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes;
Enhanced SOD and POX isoenzymes expression levels.
Venkatachalam et al. 2017
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)
Size (nm): 59.2
Conc. (mg. L−1): 100
Using plant extract (from Pluchea sericea & Prosopis glandulosa) as reducing agent Transgenic Growth chamber AgNPs from P. glandulosa exhibited greater efficiency than AgNPs from P. sericea in scaling down the infection in the plants contaminated with Fusarium solani. Abdelmoteleb et al. 2018